C Programming Tutorial : Introduction

What is C Programming Language? Basics, Introduction, and History

C is a general-purpose middle-level programming language. It has the simplicity of a high-level language as well as the power of low-level Language. C is extremely popular, simple, and flexible. It is a machine-independent, structured programming language which is used extensively in various applications.

This aspect of C makes it suitable for writing both application’ programs and system programs. Hence it is an excellent, efficient, and general-purpose language for most of the applications. such as mathematical, scientific, business, and system software applications.

History Of C

The C language was developed in the 1970s at Bell laboratories by Dennis Ritchie. Initially, it was designed for programming in the operating system called UNIX. After the advent of C, the whole UNIX operating system was rewritten using it. Now almost the entire UNIX operating system and the tools supplied with it including the C compiler itself are written in C.
C language is derived from the B language, which was written by Ken Thompson at AT&T Bell laboratories. The B language was adopted from a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language), which was developed by Martin Richards at Cambridge University


Dennis Ritchie

In 1982 a committee was formed by ANSI (American National Standards Institute) to standardize the
C language. Finally, in 1989, the standard for C language was introduced known as ANSI C. Generally most of the modern compilers conform to this standard.

Languages Like as C++/Java are developed from ‘C’. These languages are Globally used in various technologies. So, ‘C’ forms a base for many other languages that are currently in use.

Applications of 'C' language

Why Learn 'C' Programming?

As we Learn Before, ‘C’ is a base language for many programming languages that’s why it is MUST for students and working professionals to become a great Software Engineer specially when they are working in Software Development Fields.

C is small language, consisting of only 32 English words known as keywords (if, else, for, break etc.). The power of C is augmented by the library functions provided with it. Moreover, the language is extendible since it allows the users to add their own library functions to the library.

How 'C' Works?

C is a compiler-based programming language. A compiler is a special tool (program) that executes the program and converts it into the machine language file which is machine readable. After the compilation process, the linker will combine different object files and creates a single executable file to run the program. The following diagram shows the execution of a ‘C’ program.


Nowadays, various compilers are available online, and you can use any of those compilers. The functionality will never differ and most of the compilers will provide the features required to execute both ‘C’ and ‘C++’ programs

Following is the list of popular compilers available online: